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Africa and America, whose wood was extremely hard, and indeed it is only a translation of the common appellation, ironwood. The genus, as established by Linnæus, is not correct, and our author thinks he has discovered some of the synonyms to be doubtful. As Linnæus therefore probably had never seen any species in a living state, and seemed not to have had an accurate idea of the genus, M. Jacquin endeavours to correct his errors. The numerous difficulties in the way of forming a correct generic character, prevent him from attempting it at this time, but he has endeavoured to lay the foundation, by describing four species of lideroxylon more correctly than before. The sideroxylon melanopheum ard fætidiffimum he had already noticed, and he now adds the fideroxylon mitc, inerme & tenax, from Linnæus: the sideroxylon maftichodendron (the mastic tree) from Catesby. It is his cornus, foliis laurinis, fructu majore luteo.
The cimex teucrii is a new species of bug, denominated from the plant (teucriuin supinurn), on which the animal is found. It is very minute, and its cell very small to defend it from rain, and a sed ant its most formidable enemy. The whole life of this insignificant being does not extend beyond a month.
M. Jacquin's continuation of the botanical observations fol. lows. This essay, which concludes the volume, contains 107 plants.
The third volume is also ftill more exclusively botanical. M. Wulfen’s continuation of the rarer plants of Carinthia is the firft article. It contains 1or plants, well described and beaucifully engraved : many curious lichens are among the number. Jacquin's continuation of the Observationes Botanicæ' follow, from No. 308 to 400. The same author's Description of the rarer Plants froin dried Specimens,' is added. As M. Swartz's Nova Genera & Species' were published at the same time as our author's volume, he has been informed, he tells us, * from England,'that they have sometimes given different names to the same plant. He admits his asplenium anthriscifolium to be the asplenium pumiluin of Swartz; his own acrostichunı longifolium, to be his acrostichum latifolium; the chionanthus caribza of Jacquin to be the chionanthus compacta of Swartz. That his eugenia periploc.folia & paniculata are the myrtus splendens & acris b. of Swartz, he leaves to be determined by that botanist, when he has remarked, that in each the corolla is constantly tetrapetalous, the berry unilocular, with a single feed, circuinstances inconfiftent with the genus myrtus.
M. Hoft's Entomologica contains a description of the scarabæus facer, scarabæus exscutellatus of Linnæus; curculio mus tabilis, cardiniger & corruptor ; elater mordelloides į çarabus pilosus; and tipula paradoxa, found in the tan of the hot-house, in the botanical garden at Vienna. The carabæus corruptor is á most fatal enemy to vines, and destroyed by gardeners with the most anxious cate, and the most unwearied diligence.
pilofus ; influence
The last eslay is or the generic characters of the convolvulus and ipomxa. The genera have been often confounded; and are not yet accurately fixed. M. Jacquin proposes the form of the stigma for the generic character, and to fix that of the convolvulus, ' ftigma bipartitum in lacinias lineares;' while the stigma of the ipomża is consequently capitatum & papillosum;' to which lobatum' may be added. The other parts of the plants resemble each other to nearly, that it is difficult to fixon a distinguishing inark; and in this way many of the convolvuli will be transferred to the genus of ipomæa. The change seems à little too rath and violent.
Leçons d'une Gouverrante a ses Eleves, ou Fragmens d'un Joure
nal qui a été fait pour l'Education des Enfans de Monfieur d'Orleans. Par Madume de Sillery Brulart, Gouvernante de
Mademoiselle d'Orleans. 2 Vols. 8io. Paris, 1791. IN this fingular work the celebrated countess de Genlis de
scends from theory to practice, and presents us with a journal of the real incidents which occurred in her education of the children of the house of Orleans, three boys and a girl. We have perufed it with fome pleasure, if we except that large part of the second volume which is occupied with paltry dilputes between madame de Genlis, now Sillery-Brulart, and the under-governors, à part which serves not one purpose of amusement or inftruction, and which must have been printed during the fleep of judgment and of imagination.
In her preface madame Brulart informs us that she has lodge cd the original Journal, whence the first volume is extracted, in the hands of a notary, M. Gabion, No. 39, Rue de Richelieu, who will show it to any teachers of youth who may be desirous of comparing the edition with the original. Our auchoress then vindicates herself in a manner which testifies her to be a warm friend of the French revolution against the charges which her enemies, the enemies of that event, have taifed against her conduct in the education of these illustrious children. Her defence in this and other parts of the work is ample and satisfactory. She was reproached with teaching her disciples the maxims that led to the revolution, with infpiring M. de Chartres with the defire of being admitted to the society of friends of the constitution; with instilling into their tender tinds too great attachment to herself, and with diminifhing the
influence of their mother, a daughter of the house of Pen; thievre, an aristocrate, and fince separated from her husband. The preface concludes thus : if for twelve years I have been entirely devoted to my disciples, if I have given them intelli. gence, just ideas, excellent principles, if the fruit of these less fons has been to attach them extremely to their governess, they are sensible and grateful, they really love virtue ; this is what was my duty to prove. I flatter myself besides that this work will not be without use to teachers and fathers of families. I dare to believe that there is no child who can read it without interest and improvement, especially when he thinks that it is not a work of imagination. The second volume, now in the press, and which will appear in a fortnight, will offer more variety and more engaging details, but that volume which contains all the secrets of education is not fit for children, and
can only be useful to teachers.'
Of the lessons which are addressed to the children who regularly read the Journal, we shall present fome laudable specimens.
• If on the high-way far from succour you find any person much hurt, although you had no concern in the accident, humanity impofes it as a duty upon you to stop and use means of aflistance. And likewise, if in the high-way you find a carriage overturned, you should send your servants to offer help: if the accident have happened to people of good appearance, though unknown to you, you should offer them places in your carriage; much more if known to you, &c.'
M. de Chartres has performed an action which I write with delight. Without any insinuation or instruction, and instigate ed only by his own heart, he privately gave three days ago all his money to deliver a prisoner : and has mentioned this affair to none. Next day he was told that a moft unfortunate man had occasion for immediate allistance. As he had no more money he requested me to desire M. le Brun to give him fomě, and I consented: he applied to M. le Brun, who not knowing how he had used his money, did not approve his not applying his pocket-money to this purpose. Monsigneur did not explain his reason, and it was not till three days after that he informed me of all, well thinking that as he confesses his faults to me, so he may reveal his good actions as the only recompense with which he can repay my cares: he told me the fact fimply, and in few words. I did not endeavour to conceat from him the impression which this recital made upon me: he saw my scars, tiow, he mingled his, with an exprellion of fenfibility, the remembrance of which still affects me, and said to me the most amiable and engaging words. ' Dear child, I fhall never forget that evening.'
Madame Brulart, in the just idea that rewards have more effect upon children than punishments, instituted little prizes, such as writing-boxes, &c. to be given to the child who, during three months, excelled in goodness and sweetness of temper, or in application.
I have discovered that M. de Montpensier (the second son, as the count de Beaujolois is the third) has taken care for many months of a poot woman, and with an attention, a goodness, a fecresy; which much recommend the action. He desires to go and see her, and I shall go with him. I have not written in this Journal, that we went a few days ago to see an. other poor woman delivered from shocking want by the charity of the princes, and of mademoiselle.' In a note, madame Brulart informs us, that for such actions her enemies accuse her of taking her disciples to the houses of the poor, in order to feduce the people !
On the 19th of July, 1789, during the epoch of the revolution, madame Brulart read an animated lecture to her difciples, concluding thus : 'You cannot justify yourselves in my eyes, except by ttarting at once from that infancy in which you are buried, and in accomplishing henceforth your duties with the greatest distinction. No more words: actions, conftant actions. In a note she informs us, that this lecture delivered them at once from infancy: those who have never educated children cannot imagine what effects one forcible leflon, at a proper time, may produce upon young imaginations and pure hearts.
At the conclusion of this volume we find a memoir of madame Brulart on the dispute between the duchess of Orleans and her. She represents the duchess as a lady of great worth and amiable temper, but influenced against her by the countels de Chatelux, an intimate confidante. This lady and her husband were introduced into the family of Orleans by madame Brulart, and repaid the service with complete active ingratitude. In the second volume we learn that she is an English woman, of the name of Plunket. She fo far incited the duchefs against her benefactress, that the education of the sons being terminated, madame Brulart was forced to abandon her care of mademoiselle, whose sudden and violent change of
the occasion was the cause of madame Brulart's resuming her ftation as her governess. The duke of Orleans, incensed at the conduct of madame de Chatelux, desired her to chuse some other residence than his house, and to send within a fortnight the keys of her apartment at the Palais Royal. The consequence of this step was a demand of separation, made by the duchess. 2
In proceeding to the second volume, which consists of extracts of different journals of this important education, the first object which attracts our attention is the unrivalled affiduity of the authoress.
• Monday 17th June. M. le Brun remarks that the princes having returned, rested till eight o'clock, at which hour he conducted them to me.
• I do not approve of such repose, they must not be accuftomed to regard complete idleness as repole; befides they would not have been fatigued by a walk of an hour. They must never remain without doing any thing, were it only for fix minutes. This quarter of an hour might have been employed in playing at chess, in heraldry, in repeating terms of architecture, or at a lecture. In a word, never two minutes, nor even one, of idleness.'
This is surely far too severe, this forcing might produce precocious fruit; but we should prefer more time and more vigour in the seasonable production. The bow should be now and then quite unbent. What are we to make of a quarter of an hour at chess?
The contests with the abbe Guyot, one of the under-governors, are disgusting in an eminent degree. That madame Brulart should have carried on this paper-war in the written Journal is surprising; but that the could think of printing it is inconceivable. Here is a specimen, from p. 211.
"I find the answer of M. l'abbe false and injurious; he does not answer accusations which are facts, known to all. I do not complain that he has discontinued his visits: I tell, without complaint, the mere facts; which are, that he dispenses with mere common politeness towards me, and what is more, towards my mother; I say, that he alone never asks how the does, nor bids her good-day, any more than he does me,' &c. &c. Id populus curat scilicet! When one sees the merest dregs of conversation committed to the press, here and in France, one is tempted to conclude that the dotage of literature approaches. The reader will hardly believe that about 200 pages out of 578, in this second volume, are occupied with scolding! If madame Brulart profesies to teach this noble science, the thould ettablish her academy among the poijardes. How she can feriously recommend this volume to fathers of families, or to teachers, who have generally scolding enough at home, we cannot conceive; any more than we can see the fitness of putting the former volume into the hands of chil. dren, while it contains a severe accusation of a mother, an object ever sacred to a well-educated child.
Disgusted with this part, we thall pass to a more pleasing APP. VOL. IV. NEW ARR.