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compose this work. About a year afterwards, he published his History of the most remarkable Earthquakes, but he was still devoted to metaphysics, and united them to philosophy. His first steps in this line were in two Latin works, published in 1755. and 1956, on the Principles of Human Knowledge.' Some years afterwards, he gave a Demonstration of the fiditious Subtilty of the four Figures of a Syllogism.; and after fome other works, published one entitled . The only
possible Basis on which the Demonstration
of the Existence of a God can be founded.? In 1762 he divided the prize proposed by the academy of Berlin with the Jew Mendelsohm, on the Evidence to be attained in Metaphysical Sciences.'-This eflay did him great honour, and from this period M. Kant was confidered as a cladical author in speculative philosophy. His fuccess contributed probably to his attaining the chair of ordinary professor of philosophy in 1770, when he was forty-fix years old. From that period, and indeed from 1762, he has not passed a single year without adding to his reputation by some new work. There is not an university in Germany where some profefior does not boast of being a disciple of, or a commentator on, Kant. Neither Mallebranche in France, nor Locke in England, ever enjoyed so much reputation in their lives, for even the Jews follow his principles in explaining the most difficult passages in the 'Talmud. It is indeed true, that those who profess his philosophy do not understand it, but with great labour, since it is so intricate and deep. One of his works is entitled
The Reveries of a spiritual Traveller explained by the Reveries of Metaphysics.” He writes, however, occasionally for the world at large, and furnishes the articles to the Konigsberg Gazette and to the Berlin Journal, published by Giedike and Biefter.' - We must mention, that those who read the abbe Denina's work, ought to be on their guard in one respect. The titles of the works are universally in French, though many of these are in the German language, and some in the Latin; but the original language is in no instance pointed out, and readers not ac, quainted with the German may, without this notice, be deceive cd, by ordering volumes which they will not understand,
Nicolai Josephi Jacquin Collectanea ad Botanicam Chemicam,
& Hiftoriam Naturalem Spectantia. 3 Vols. Quart. maxim.
Vindobonæ 1787-1789. Kraus. OF F this splendid work we delayed giving any account till we
had seen the progressive volumes appear with unimpaired Splendor, executed with the same unwearied attention. The diftane fpot in which they are published prevents us from re
ceiving ceiving them in proper time': the third volume has only reached this country very lately. But it is necessary to give the biltory of the publication.
In the year 1778 M. Jacquin published the first volume of Miscellanea Austriaca, in which he purposed to collect different essays relating to botany, mineralogy, chemistry, zoology, and every other branch of natural history, which might appear of importance to the progress of each of these sciences, written either by himself or friends, including the inaugural dissertations published in the Austrian dominions on the various parts of his very extensive plan. The second volume appeared in 1781, and each was adorned with plates, chiefly coloured, executed with fingular beauty and accuracy. But the size of these volumes, a small quarto, was not sufficient to admit of large plates, with out folding, a circumstance which often injured their beauty ; so that, in the continuation of the work, it was enlarged, and the title changed to Collectanea : in other respects, the object and the execution were little varied. M. Jacquin probably intended that the paper in the continuation should have been bettér, because, among the disadvantages of the former work, he mentions vilior charta:' unfortunately, however, in the copies which now lie before us, the paper on which the Colecta: nea is printed is by much the worst. Of the former publication, at this distance, we cannot with propriety give any account; of this continuation, fometimes even quoted by the author himself, as the third, fourth, and fifth volumes of the Mifcellanea, we shall give a curfory description, for the minute botanical and mineralogical details would be very uninteresting in an analysis.
The first dissertation by J. X. Wulfen, is a continuation of a former essay on the sparry ore of lead from Carinthia. Fifty-seven species were before described, and thirty-four are now added.
The second essay is by M. Jacquin, on the valeriana celtica, the nardus celtica of Diofcorides and Bauhine. The description and the figure, which is a very beautiful coloured one, were supplied by M. Wulfen. Such a plant as Clufius has exhibited, and Scopoli described, with verticulated and fubverticulated peduncles, M. Wulfen observes that he has never seen; for the valerian 'seems to affect peduncles exactly oppofite.' He never saw it in the Alps of Carniola, nor the higheft mountains of Carcathia, and it generally occurred in those hills which consifted of a compound rock, where there was no lime-stone. Of those who have given pictures of it, few, he thinks, have examined it in a perfect state. In the figure of Mathiolus, for instance, the root appears dried and compresfed,
the stem is an ideal figure : the leaves and branches are well ex. pressed. Clufius has faithfully represented the habit of the plant, and his plate is copied by Gerard, inverted by Bauhine and Chabræus. Camerárius's plate is a good one, taken probably from Gesner, and repeated by Morison. Lobelius drew it in an inverted position, and represented tís lateral peduncles with fingle Aowers: Tabernæmontanus loaded it with three stalks. Plukenet's plate is not very accurate. The plant has been hitherto found exclusively on high mountains.
When chemically examined, its odour and taste came over in distilled water ; but the taste was disagreeably bitter. Distilled by itself, belides the usual products of water, spiritus rector and einpyreumatic oil, an acid fluid was found in the retort. From four ounces of the root fix grains of fixed vegetable alkali, with two drachms twenty-five grains of calcareous earth, were procured: from the fame.quantity fix drachms of spirituous extract were obtained. It is used for different purposes ; carried to Egypt by the Syrian merchants to lay on the baths; in Austria collected to drive off insects, or as a fumigation ; but the odour is very disagrecable, and occasions violent head-achs. The Greek merchants at the court of Vienna, pay, it is said, two or three millions of florins annually, for the exclusive priyilege of sending this plant to Turkey. It is collected in large quantities from the Carynthian and Styrian Alps, and fent in boats down the Danube. As the smell is more powerful than that of the valerian, Haller thinks it will be more useful for those diseases in which valerian is usually found serviceable. Geoffroy thinks it more advantageous as a dieuretic, tonic, and carmina tive than the spica indica. Linnæus fupposes it to be an antispasmodic, diuretic, and anthelmintic. It undoubtedly deserves more attention than has been paid to it. Our author thinks that it cannot be the faliunca of Virgil (Eclog. V. 17.), because compared with the rose-bush. But he did not look at Virgil, for it is contrasted; and from the description of Pliny (lib. xxi. cap 7.) we think it probably the same.
Botanical observations, continued from the Miscellan. Auftriac. vol. i. follow, but these will admit of no abridgement, and even to copy the names would lead us too far. Ninetytight species are either described or illustrated.
M. Scherer's observations and experiments, on the green mat ter on the surface of the Caroline and Topliz waters, deserve particular attention. In each of these waters a gelatinous vellcular vegetable substance is found, of a brilliant green colour, and a fingular texture: at tines it is of a dirty green, brown, and even black. It was formerly called a vitriolic efflorescence but Springfeld, in the Berlin. Traolactions (1752), firft difcovered it to be a fungus, and called it tremella thermalis. The brown or black matter is merely filamentous, and called by Springfeld tremella filamentofa, while the thermalis confifts of filaments, hollow tubes containing air, which expands by the heat of the sun, veficular bodies, and minute green transparent granules. On a more particular examination, he found all the hlaments moveable; though, when taken out of the water, they seemed to revive and move again, only after an interval of three or four days; but at the same time he discovered in the water various species of infusory animals. After fifteen days, when the water was renewed, the filaments moved vigoroully, but they had then lost the elegant green, and foon degenerated into a gelatinous putrid mass, and all the filaments had lost their motion, except a few, which irritated by a very gentle stimulus by the Aame of a candle, showed signs of life. The great queltion therefore is whether the motion may not have been owing to the animalcula infuforia. It seems probable that it was so ; yet, at the same time, the tremella was put into cold water, and, if it had any natural irritability, would probably lose it in this situation. Subsequent experiments seem to throw fome light on the difficulty.
The smallest quantity of acids, alkalis, folution of vitriols, sugar, neutral falts, and fixed air in water, added to the mass, drove the filaments and their attending animals to the other side. The minute portion of nitrous acid and the other fluids, excepting only the solution of sugar and fixed air, agitated the filaments with a kind of convulsive motion, and soon deprived the whole mass of life. The mephitic water was the least noxious, the fixed vegetable alkali and nitrous acid the most injurious. In another experiment, the motion began the second day; the matter Ihrunk on being touched, and renewed the parts that were cut away. In short, our author concludes this green mat. ter to be of an animal nature, and seems to style it a congeries of polypi. To this conclusion we can only offer one objec. tion, that it is by no means certain, from the experiments before us, that the appearance of vitality is not communicated to the plant by the adventitious animals. This subject ought to be farther elucidated. Our author desiribes the little animals discovered, without adverting to the distinction we have hinted. The air procured from this substance was dephlogisticated in fun-fhine, and less pure by night; some proof of a vegetable nature, though, unlike vegetables, it did not injure the air exposed to it in the dark; and, from a chemical analysis, a Night smell of volatile alkali was perceived, and not the minutelt portion of fixed alkali. . The oil was very black and empyreu. maric. : Wulfen's continuation of the rarer plants of Carinthia fol. low; but his descriptions afford nothing that we can extract with propriety. Eighty plants are described, and frequently engraved, with the usual brilliancy and elegance which diftinguish the plates of this volume. The last article of the first volume is entitled Some Animadversions on the Fafciculi of Austrian Plants, published by Hen. J. N. Crantz.' The author, M. Jacquin, endeavours to reconcile fome apparent contradictions, and corrects some minute errors in that publication.
The second volume is chiefly, botanical. The first essay, by M. Haenke, contains Botanical Observations made in Bohemia, Austria, Carynthia, the Tyrol, Styria, and Hungary.' In this untrodden path our author has discovered much novelty, and fome plants of curiofiry; but his observatious are "purely botanical, and will be uninteresting to general readers.
M. Jacquin, in the next effay, describes the phalzena vitifana. It is an animal very destructive to vines and the grapes, The eggs are laid when the buds begin to shoot (in the year 1788, it was about the 12th of May), and the larvæ weave their web round the geinmæ: on the 5th of June, they were, as usual, metamorphosed to pupæ; and, from the 7th to the 25th of July, the phalænæ came out, which are described and delineat. ed. As there was a vacant space on the plate, M. Jacquin has added a species of tenthredo, which he found on the prunus padus Lin.
In the third article M. Jacquin deicribes fome very rare plants, taken from dried specimens, chiefly from America and the West India islands; and M. Wulfen adds his continuation of the rarer plants of Carynthia. Seventy fpecies, including many curious lichens, are described in this effay. Some of thefe are, as usual, delineated.
Dr. Scherer, in the 'Animadversiones Quædam circa Eudometriam,' endeavours to defend the eudio.neter as a test of impure air. Dr. Achard has observed, that air, procured by the detonation of equal parts of nitre and filings of iron, and secured by closing the vessel immediately after the detonation, was diininised by nitrous air, but was still injurious to animals. To support the credit of the inftrument, our author made different experiments, but with no clear decided views and with no remarkable success. He procured air in different ways which lefsened nitrous air, supported Aame, and yet was fatal to animals : we know very well its nature; bui, as in his opinion the injury from respiring air is not owing to its phlogiitong it ought not to lessen the credit of the eudiometer. We need scarcely stay to refute ideas fo crude and so inaccurate,
The next effáy is by M. Jacquin, and entitled nderoxylum. This term Herman and Plukenet have applied to many trees in