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Yer, crossing the others at right angles, dividing the whole into lesser squares. The walls are built on a fuft freeltone rock, high above the cirrúmjacent country; and are said to have been built by the Mercian lady Ethelfeda.
• The structure of the four principal streets is without parallel; they ren direct from east to welt, and north to fouth, and were excavated out of the earth, and funk many feet beneath the furface. The carriages are driven far below the level of the kitchens, on a line with ranges of shops, over which passengers walk in galleries, which the inhabitants call the rows, secure from wet or heat. In the rows are likewise ranges of hops, and feps to descend into the street.'
Several Roman antiquities have been discovered about Cher ter at different times. Among these is an altar, erected by Flavius Longus, tribune of the 20th legion, and his son Longinus, in honour of the emperor Dioclefian and Maximinian; and a statue of Mithras. Coins of Vefpafian, Conftantius, Trajan, Hadrian, &c.' have at different times been found.
In the account which the author gives of earls of Chester, we meet with the following Judicrous anecdote.
• Ranulph fought a retreat, from the attacks of the Welsh, in the castle of Rhuddlan; which underwent a violent Siege for some cime ;-till Roger Lacy, constable of Chefter, collected a formidable band of fiddlers, and other motly minttrels, who had alsembled together at a fair at Chefter, founded by Hugh Lupus, one leading privilege of which was, the protection of whores, togues, thieves, and vagabonds, of every denomination, during its continuance, from restraint of punishment.-With this regiquent of rofiners die Roger march into Wales, where, itrange to tell, they played so good a funt, that it in a short time closed with the raising of the bege ; - for which service, Ranulph rewarded Lacy with full power over all the foræpers of caigut in the county ;- a privilege which his son transferred to the family of the Duttons, in Cheshire; and it is within the recollection of many persons now living, that the anniversary of this whimsical solemnity was regularly celebrated, on the fetival of St. John the Baptist, by a proceflion of the minstrels to the church of their tutelas saint in Chester :—to che no small amusement of the spectators.'
The author afterwards gives an account of the citywalls, boundaries, corporation, churches, streets, &c. with a chronology of remarkable events in Chester; subjoining a ground-plan of the city, which appears to be accurately delineated. To the history of Cheiter, is added a fummary of the life of St. Werburgh; with an historical account of the images upon her thrine (now the episcopal throne),
in the choir of Chester. — The author appears to have been industrious in his researches; and has mixed entertainment, as much as he could, with the information he has been able to collect.
Ρ Ο Ι Ι Τ Ι C A L. A Letter of Advice from a French Democrat to an English Revolutionis,
8vo, 15. 6d. Deighton. 1792 HE eager indiscriminating violence of a warm democrat comes
so near to what a sober reflecting author would consider as open, obvious, well-pointed irony, that we have some difficulty in de termining under which class the Letter should be arranged. We have good reasons for thinking the whole to be ironical; but the irony is not sufficiently clear, and the serious argument, in some paris which relates to the affairs of France, makes the design, on the whole, equivocal. The object of the democrat is to show his correspondent what steps Mould be pursued to compass another re volution in England; and, in this view, the Letter is of import. ance- Forewarned-forearmed.' Representation and Petition from his Highness the Nabob of the Car.
nalic, presented to the House of Commons, March 5, 1792. 8vo. Is. 6d. Debrett.
1792. The mysterious politics of India are too deep and intricate to be fathomed by a literary Reviewer. We have carefully read over the petition, and think, after making every allowance, that the nabob Wau Lau Jau Ummeer ul Hind Omdat ul Mulk Ausuph ud Dowlah Unwer ud Dien Cawn Bahauder Zuphar Jung Separ Saular, fovereign and foubahdar of the Carnatic, Payenghaut, and Ballaghaut, has been hardly dealt with, though we perceive at the same time, that the said nabob Wau Lau, &c. &c. &c. seems to have been the first who broke the treaty, by suffering the arrears to accumulate wantonly and unreasonably. A Letter to the Right Hon. W. Pitt, on the Subje&t of a Tax for
raising fix Millions sterling, and for employing that Sum in Loans 19
necesitous and indufirious Persons. 410. • The plan of this benevolent author's projeĉ is briefy as follows : That the sum of fix millions sterling be raised by a capitation, or poll-tax: one million of which should remain in the hands of government during the term of seven years; and five millions to be lent among honest and industrious tradesmen, manufacturers, and others, who stood in need of such asliftance.
That such a plan, judiciously regulated, would encrease public prosperity, seems highly probable; but the moft faithful and impartial conduct of the trustees would be necessary for carrying it into execution. In justice to the projector, it may be proper to add, that the Lecter is subscribed with the name of Andrew Becket. An Address to the Right Hon. W. Pitt, on the Probability of a Re
volution in this country. 8vo. 15. Ridgway. 1792. The old complaint of corruption in government, mixed and fermented with the doctrine of the Rights of Men. The Question considered; How far the prefent flourishing State of the
Nation is to be ascribed to the Conduct of the Minister. 8vo. Is. 6d, Ridgway. 1792.
The author of this pamphlet affects the stricteft impartiality in the investigation of his subject; and we wish it could be added, that he has equally observed such a rule in the progress of his argument, The several public transactions which he confiders are, indeed, the most proper data by which a judgment may be formed of the merit or demerit of administration ; but he does not state the consequences of those data with sufficient accuracy ; and in endeavouring to extenuate the good effects of certain public meafures, he seems not to reflect that the prosperous state of the nation, which he readily admits, ought not to be ascribed to the operation of any one or more individual measures, considered se. parately, so much as to the general and complicated result of the whole. With respect to the author's idea, that an adininistration formed of men of great landed property, is preferable to one which is supported by public opinion, he is not likely to make many converts to his dodrines; and few, we believe, would rejoice in the security of an administration, which depended more upon its own aristocratical influence, than the general sentiments of the nation. Memoirs of Hildebrand Freeman, Elg. or a Sketch of The Rights
A recent Story founded upon Facts, and written by Himself. Svo. Is. 62. Edwards.
1792. The Memoirs of this friend to the natural equality of mankind are designed to show practically the progress of the mind early tinctured with the levelling doctrines, and carefully investigating the fubject from observation and reasoning. The descriptions of the proceedings of the national affembly seem to be copied on the Spot, and we might have been tempted to transcribe the account, but that, from accident or design, it has already appeared in feveral of the newspapers. The following observations appear to us yery accurate :
Gloomy as these experimental views were, I had ftill Tome glimmer of hope in the laws; these may, in time, thought I, regulate all abuses-- They are now afloat upon a new principle, and it must be by the operation of these, and these alone, from which all good government can be expe&ted. With this view I exanined, with as much accuracy as I was abie, the different branches of the civil, military, and economical departments, which I found so far from coalefcing and serving mutual purposes, they Tather checked than impeded each other. The original cause of all this I found to arise from two principal discordant parts in the government, viz. democracy and royalty.--The spirit of the new government consisted of the first the form was only preserved ia the second. This occasioning a mutual distrust, every proposition on one side, however ultimately good for the state, is received coldly by the other— the love of country, of fame, of virtuous popularity, are out of all consideration ; and the great obje& of reach, debate, and assiduity (the conftitution having no fundamental balance to preserve its equipoise and temperature) is to aim increaling powers for the diferent parties.'
Perhaps his conclusion is equally jult: it is the opinion that we have often had occafion to offer.
• I had now finished my survey of the new constitution of France, not through the organs of party pamphlets, or interested people, but from an active and diligent enquiry, made by myself upon the spot. I considered it as it stood upon paper, and, as it was afterwards reduced into practice ; and the result of all was, that I was now convinced the Rights of Max, as laid down in the abstract manner of modern philosophers, are a mere pedantic abule of elementary principles, which, in the attempt, must loosen the bands of governments, and be deitructive of all social freedom.'
CONTROVERSIA L. Jelus Christ the only God. Being a Defence of that fundamental
Doctrine of the Cbrifiian Religion, against Ariani'n and Socinianifm. Addreffed to the Rev. Dr. Priuiley. By J. Bellamy. 8vo.. 25.
25. Sibly. 1792. We do not recollect that we have ever met Mr. Bellamy in the field of controverfy; yet he wields his weapons with the address of a veteran polemic, and is a champion with whom Dr. Prieitley will not, probably, disdain to contend. He attacks his restless, enterpriớng, antagonist very properly, on the little evidence to be attained even in fobjects of natural philofophy, where the subject is exposed to every trial that can be fuggefted, and traces many of Dr. Priestley's doctrines to his system of Materialism. With respect to his peculiar fyftem of Unitarianism also, he endeavours to prove bistorically, thaç the Ebionites, and the followers of
Paul of Samosata, were considered, in the earliest ages, as hecetics.
The source of this polemic attack is what Dr. Priestley had said, in his Letters to the Members of the New Jerusalem Church.' Mr. Bellamy is a follower of Emanuel Swedenborg, and tells us, that he never understood the scriptures till he was taught in the school of this very celebrated myftic-may we add, this visionary enthafialt? He attacks Dr. Priestley on many parts of his Letters, and endeavours to fhow, that he has either misunderstood or misrepresented the baron's doctrines, particularly respecting the Divine influx, marriages in a future ftate, and the supposed union of the Divine Efence to a human body. On this last subje&t, as the remark is fhort, we fhall transcribe Mr. Bellamy's observations.
• But before I enter upon it, I must not omit to inform my readers of the injustice you have done the baron, in misrepresenting his writinys. P. 32 and 64, you charge it apon him, as an alier tion of his own, “That the divine essence is united to a human body.” He says no such thing; but on the other hand, shows the impoffibility of such an union; and what appears illiberal on your fide, you know that he denies such an union, at the very mo, ment you are charging him with it ; for you give his own words, fi 32, where he says, “ For the human nature cannot be transe muted into the divine essence, neither commixed therewith." Whenever your pen is again employed, let candour prevail with you never to be guilty of such an impropriety, as it appears to be done with intent to deceive those who are searching for truth, or gain profelytes to your own opinions. Such subterfuges we have no idea of. “ We hesitate not to meet the full force of prejudice, by admitting the imputations of our adversaries in their most ob. noxious forms; confident that truth ftands in no need of fuch a helter, as that to which you have recourse."
On the whole, we do not think our author equally fuccessful in his particular attempts to convict his antagonift of misrepre. sentation and error, as he is in his more general oppofition; and when, for instance, the baron said that form may be predicated
God, and that form was virtually human, the doctor was not, we Suspect, very wrong in faying, that Emanuel considered God as have ing existed in a human form previous to his incarnation. Where is the difference between a form virtually the same, and a femblance formally? An Answer to the Second Part of Rigbts of Man. 8vo.
Rivingtons. 1792. Our author, with great calmness and good sense, follows this inflammatory author in his various wanderings, and detects his