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dable. From among those who have been taken and received the king's pardon, the travelling guards are selected; and they are always faithful to those they engage to protect, though they rob and sometimes murder others.

• Last year, many people in this town and neighbourhood, died in a sudden and extraordinary manner; they were generally feized with vomiting, and expired in a few hours. The cause of their death was discovered in the following manner. A young woman went to an officer of justice, to make some complaints concerning her busband; he desired her to be reconciled, and refused to proceed against him, upon which, the turned away in a rage, muttering, that the knew how to be revenged. The magiftrate paid attention to what she said, and gave orders for her being arrested; when, upon ftriêt enquiry concerning the meaning of her words, the confessed, that it was her intention to poison her hurband, by purchasing a bottle of vinegar from an old woman, who prepared it for that purpose. In order to ascertain the truth of this story, another woman was sent to the old jade, to demand some of the same vinegar, which was sold for about ten-pence a bottle. “ What do you want with ils” said the vender, why," (replied the other) 's I have a very bad husband, and I want to get rid of him.” Hereupon, the old woman, feventy-two years of age, produced the fatal dose, upon which she was immediately feized, and conducted to prison, where the confessed that the bad fold forty-five or forty-six bottles. Many people were taken up, but as upon further enquiry it was discovered that several of the nobility had been purchasers, the affair was dropt, and the old woman alone suffered death. Fair and cool.'

The bay of Palermo is formed by two high rocks, and the plain on which it ftands extends eight or nine miles to the east and west. This plain has been evidently gained from the sea, fince the rocks consist almost wholly of thells, agglutinated by the flime of their former inhabitants. Our author describes the singular capricious ornaments of one of the neighbouring palaces, and the convent of the noble monks of St. Martino, more particularly than former travellers. They live in princeJy splendor, but are unfortunately divided by party, by envy, hatred, malice, and all uncharitableness.' There are but four brothers, and they are equally divided into two parties.

From Palermo our travellers go eastward to Messina, and fouthward as far as Syracuse. The narrative of travels in Sicily presents little variety. Nature offers spontaneously her choicest productions; and, if one spot appears to have been peculiarly favoured by providence, it is the present scene of Mr. Hill's obfervations. The most abject poverty and misery,


the consequence of despotism, contrasts the scene, and the most disgusting filth, joined with every poslible inconveniency, is the lot of the wearied traveller who wishes for repose. The inhabitants experience also dangers connected, in the opinion of some philosophers, with their blessings, viz. frequent earthquakes. The late dreadful one, by which Messina was destroyed, is still within our memories. We remember observing the thermometer fall remarkably, and hollow winds, with a gloomy sky of a very dreadful appearance, were observable even in this iland, on the fatal and two succeeding days. Let us add our author's particular account: it is the fullest, and we believe the most accurate, that has appeared in our language.

On the fifth day of the present February, (1783) an unpropitious day, and ever to be had in remembrance by the beautiful Mere fina, about forty-eight minutes paft eleven in the morning, the earth began to shake, at first fightly, then with such force, such bellowing, and with such various and irregular shocks that the motion was fimilar to the rolling of the sea *. The walls gave way on every fide, knocked together, and crumbled to pieces; the roofs were tost into the air, the floors Shattered, the vaults broken, and the strongest arches divided. By the force of three or four shocks, which succeeded each other without a moment's intermiflion, many houses were reduced to suin, many palaces thrown down, and churches and steeples levelled with the ground. A the same time a long fissure was made in the earth upon the quay, and in an adjoining hill, while another part of the coast was covered by waves. At that instant a vast cloud like ashes rose furi. ously from the horizon in the north-west, reached the zenith, and descended in the opposite quarter. It grew dark at the moment of the concussion, extended its dimensions, and almost obscured the whole hemisphere t. At the same time also appeared upon the tops the houses and palaces that were falling to pieces, a sudden and transient flame, like those lightnings that glance from the summer clouds, leaving behind it a sulphureous smell 1.

• The wretched inhabitants now left their houses in the greatest terror and confufion, calling upon God with piteous cries for fuccour, and running to and fro about the streets, not knowing whi, ther they should fee. In the mean while the buildings on each fide were falling upon them, and the earth almost continually trembling under their feet, so that in the thort space of three minutes they were almost all collected together in the squares and

• From this motion many persons were seized with giddiness and vomit. ing, and the very birds were so affected, that they suffered themselves to be taken by the hand.'

• 4 The fame phenomenon was observed in three succeeding shocke, that completed the destruction of the city.'

• The same was seen in several parts of Calabria, and has likewise been semarked in former earthquakes.'



open places of the city, under the dreadful apprehenfions of initant death. Every eye was bathed with tears, and every heart palpitated with fear, while they experienced an addition to their misery by being exposed to the violence of a tempeftuous wind, attended with corrents of hail and rain. It is impossible for the pencil of the most ingenious painter to delineate, or for the pen of the most able writer' to describe the horror and confusion of these wretched people. Each one lought for safety in fight, and many in seeking it met with death. Others were buried alive under the falling houses *, others hung upon the beams, others upon the thresholds of the windows and balconies, from whence by means . of ropes and ladders they with difficulty escaped with their lives, and others miferably perished, either under the stones and rubbih of their own dwellings, or from the buildings which fell upon them as they paired through the streets.

• They who escaped unhurt, spent the rest of the day in prepare ing a place of thelter against the approaching night. Gence detay ill-built cabins, composed of furniture taken from the Futas, saised in the space of a few hours, within which they lay together in promiscuous companies upon the bare ground.

"The earth in the mean time continued to shake inceiliniy, with a noise similar to a furious cannorading, which seened in proceed from within its bowels. Sometimes the flocks sere weak, sometimes frong, and fo continued till midnight, when with a molt tremer.dous noise the making afsuined a redoubled fury, and threw down all those edifices that had refifted the fusmer shocks. Then fell part of the wails of the cathedral, the magnificent ster ple, two hundred and twenty-five palms in heigt, part of the great hospital, the seminary of the prieks, the remainder of the student's college t, the front of the palaces upon the quay, many churches, convents and monasteries, toge:her with multitudes of private houses. At the fi.me time the sea role with an extraordinary roaring to a vast height, overflowed a long tract of land near little lake called Il Pantanello, and carried back with it some poor cottages that were there erected, together with all the men, animals, and vessels it met with in its passage, leaving upon the land, which had been overthrown, a great quantity of fish of various kinds.

• From twelve o'clock of the aforesaid fifth of February to the midnight following the shocks were so frequent, that they suce ceeded each othea without any interval longer than fifteen minutes,

"* Rosa Santagelo, aged ninety-seven, was dug out of the ruins at Catania, in the year 1693. She was again buried by this earthquake at Messina, and again preserved alive.'

: The greater part of the students, who had been immured by the falling of the buildings at the first shock, were now fet ac liberty, and escaped unhurt.'


and continued much in the fame manner till about three o'clock on the evening of the seventh, when the whole mine was sprung at once, and the last stroke given to the already-ruined Mellina. A cloud of dust chat darkened the air rose from the falling city, and in this, more than in any of the former earthquakes, was felt a variety of motions undulatory, vertical, &c. which thate tered the walls to pieces, destroyed many buildings from their very foundations, and, as if pounded in a mortar, spread them over the surface of the earth *.

Some few edifices that were founded upon rocks in the upper part of the city, are fill ftanding, but they are for the most part lo cracked and damaged, that it is dangerous to go near them.'

Several particular effects of the concussion are afterwards mentioned, and the meteorological appearances, previous to the shock, described. The length of our former extracts prevents us from enlarging on these: they in general show aitate of the air very highly electrical. The other appearances were halos and thick mifts; winds variable and inconftant, alternating with dead calms; the water of the wells turbid, and the sea rising to an uncommon height, its billows roaring with an unusual found. The fatal signal, instantaneously preceding the shock, was the eruption of denfe globes of smoke from Volcano and Stromboli. The brute creation were sensible of some horrible impending event: oxen placed their feet trongly against the earth, raised their heads, and bellowed most loud. ly: birds flew about confused, fearing to perch on the trees or light on the ground, and immense quantities of fea-geese were seen swimming on the waters of the Faro.

Whoever considers the vast powers of volcanoes may, in our author's opinion, credit the story related by Plato of the Atiantica, which Mr. Hill thinks was founded on the separation of America from Europe. But, in this folution, we do not find many parts of the Egyptian story accounted for, nor does it coincide with the circumstances of America. If we can ever enter into the discussion, we may render it more probable that a large country in the Atlantic has been actually overwhelmed by the sea.

Ætna has been often described, and Mr. Hill enters the lists with some success againīt the tribe of philosophers, who, from successive beds of lava covered with strata of a vegetable soil,

The whole number of persons that lost their lives at Mellina, amounted to fix hundred and seventeen, besides which, many others were wounded in a terrible manner. Two children, a boy. and a girl, continued seven days under the ruins, and were then found alive, and it is reported of another, that he recovered after having been confined a till longer time. Some Guineafowls fubalted without food seventeen days, and two mules twenty-four.'

of different thickness, endeavour to prove the age of the world to be much beyond the æra described by Mofes. We have often had occasion to join in the same opposition, and need not again renew the dispute. Our author's remarks deserve much attention. He gives some account of the chevalier Gioeni's museum of the Vesuvian lavas, which we noticed in our last Appendix, but styles him improperly Joenai. He describes too fome remains of ancient buildings, &c. discovered in this neighbourhood, covered, like Herculaneum and Pompeia, by the ashes of their destructive neighbours. We shall extract the account of the caverns and catacombs near Syracuse.

Palling from thence over a few fields, we came to some small · caverns, one of which is simply ornamented over the entrance with Doric architecture cut in the solid rock. A little farther, we found a Gothic church under ground, said to be the first Chris. tian one in the island ; it is very small, and still used for the celes bration of mass. Above is another church, or rather chapel, of modern date, adjoining to which stands an ancient Gothic wall, ornamented with an handsome Gothic window. From the lower church, we were conducted into the catacombs, which are said to extend as far as the ancient city, and are not less curious than those at Naples. After traversing a long passage, in the fides of which are niches for the dead, we came to a round hall, about twenty feet in diameter, and tapering like a cone to the top, which seems to have been formerly open. From the hall, are three or four passages, leading to other halls of the same kind, and so on through labyrinths, that no mortal has the courage to explore, The tombs in the passages are formed one behind another, and

extend backwards into the rock, to the number of twenty-five in . a row. The halls, it is supposed, were intended for families of

distinction. In the midst of some is a large tomb for the chief, and around are cavities for the rest of the family. There are a few ornaments remaining, and one or two Greek inscriptions.'

Ætna, when viewed from Catanea, did not flame majestically :- its fire is described as a dim red light, like the sun in a fog. A curious creature, of the fish kind,' is also mentioned ;

it had a deep mouth, several rows of teeth, and four long tails. From its body was emitted a glue, by which it could attach itself to a man so strongly as to kill him.

Our travellers crofsed over the narrow strait, and landed at Regio in Calabria: the mortality, from the earthquake, was much less dreadful here than in Mestina; only 120 persons suffering from the disaster : at Bagnara the number killed is faid to have been 4350.-In Calabria the accommodations were no


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