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Rhetorick schools, and also for procuring me the best masters at home; and for making me fenfible, that one ought not to spare any expence on these occasions.
is. From my governor (who had the care of the earlier part of my education) I learned not to engage in the disputes of the Circus or of the Amphitheatre; the chariot races, or the combats of the gladiators t.
• He also taught me to endure hardships and fatigues; and to reduce the conveniences of life into a narrow compass ; and to wait on myself on moft occasions : not impertinently to interfere in other people's affair, nor hastily to listen to calumnies and Nander.
• 6. Diognetus cautioned me against too eager a pursuit of trifles; particularly, not to bury myself in feeding quails I, (for the pit or for divination.)
• As also not to give credit to vulgar tales of prodigies and incantations, and evil spirits cast out || by magicians or pretenders to sorcery, and such kind of impoftures.
• He taught me to bear patien:ly the free expoftulations of my friends; to apply myself with assiduity to the study of philosophy ; and introduced me, first, to hear Bacchius, and after that, Tandasides and Marcianus. And, while I was yet a boy, he put me upon writing dialogues as an exercise ; and also taught me to relith the hard couch covered with skins; and other severities of the ftoical discipline.
• 7. From Rufticus & I received the first intimation, that the general disposition of my mind needed some correction and cure. He prevented me from entering with warmth into the disputes, or indulging in the vanity of the Sophifts ; writing upon their fpeculative points, or perpetually haranguing on moral subjects; or making any oftentatious display of my philosophical austerities, or courting applause by my activity and patience under toil and fatigue.'
We shall lay before our readers only one other specimen of the work.
• 16. There are various ways by which the mind of man debases itself; particularly, when, by repining at those events which happen in the course of nature, he becomes a mere abscess or an useless cxcrescence in that universal system of which he is a part, and in which every individual is comprehended.
Those who talk of his “ not running the risk of a publick school” contradia the truth of history. Frequentavit et declamatorum scholas publie cas." CAPITOLIN.
*4 The parties (which the clasical reader knows ran high at this time) were distinguified by their colours in the races; and by their inftruments amongst the gladiators.
They foretold the success of their own projects by the fighting of these quails.'
• | Some commentators have fanzied, that he here alludes to the Christian miracles ; but it is more probable, from the context, that he meant no more than those vulgar fuperftitions which have prevailed in all ages.'
•SA ftuic philosopher, a tatesman, and a fuldier; the particular favourite and confidant of M. Aurelius.'
• Again ; when we take an aversion to any one, and thwart him on every occasion, with an' intention to do him some injury; which is generally the case with people that indulge their resentment.
'Thirdly; A man evidently bebases himself, when he becomes a llave to pleasure, or is fubdued by pain.
Fourthly; when he acts with diffimulation o: fraud, or does or says any thing contrary to truth.
• Lally; when a man acts without thought or design, and excris himself at random, without any regard to the consequence; whereas every the most minute action ought to be directed to fome end or ufeful purpose. Now the chief end of every rational being; is to be governed by the laws of the universe, the oldest and most venerable of all communities.
•17. The whole period of human life is a mere point ; our being frail and transient, our perception obscure, the whole frame of our body tending to putrefaction. The soul itself is the fport of passions. The freaks of fortune not subject to calculation or conjecture, fame is undiflinguishing and capricious: in a word, every thing relating to our body is fleeting, and glides away like a trcam, and the reveries of the soul are a vapour and a dream. Indeed, life itself is a continual warfare, and a pilgrimage ir. a ftrange country; and posthumous fame is near akin to oblivion.
s What then can conduct us safely on this journey of life? Nothing but true wildom of philosophy. Now this confifts in cultivating and preserving from injury and disgrace that good genius within us, our soul, undisturbed and superior to pleasure and pain, not acting at random or doing any thing in vain, or with faldhood and dissimulation; to do or leave undone whatever wę please, without being influenced by the will or the opinion of other mer.
• Moreover, to acquiefce in whatever comes to pass, either by accident or the decrees of faie, as proceeding from the same cause whence we ourselves are derived.
• On the whole, philosophy will teach us to wait for death with calmness and equanimity, as being no more than the diffolution of those elements of which every animal is composed. Now if no damage accrues to those several elements, in their continual changes or migrations from one body to another, why should any one be apprehensive of any injury from the change of the whole ? It is agreeable to the course of nature ; but what is such cannot be evil.'
This is incomparably the best translation we have seen of Antoninus's work; and Mr. Graves has added greatly to its value by his judicious notes, in which he either illustrates, or gives his opinion of the principles contained in the emperor's meditations.
Obserika Obfervations and Remarks in a Journey through Sicily and Cala
bria, in the year 1791: with a Postscript, containing some Account of the Cercmonies of the last Holy Week at Rome, ang of a fhort Excursion to Tivoli. By the Rev. Brian Hill,
A. M. 8vo. 75. 6d. Boards Stockdale. 1792. HOWEVER trodden the path, however hackneyed the sub
ject, it is with pleasure that we follow an ingenious and observing author. A more vivid sun, a more active constitution, a more chearful temper, will gild objects with brighter hues; different pursuits will represent them in a more attractive view; and varied talents will hold them up in another light. Mr. Hill has passed over the spots that we have often frequented with other travellers, but we have found his company entertaining; and we shall endeavour, while we distribute critical justice, to communicate some of the entertainment to our readers.
The party which Mr. Hill'accompanied left Naples to sail for Palermo ; and passing Caprea, the scene of Tiberius' infamous debaucheries, and the cabinet, from which the fanguinary mandates of that tyrant issued, they reached Palermo, with little power of adding to our former knowledge. At Palermo we meet with a curious account of the method of preferving dead bodies, which we do not recollect in any other author. The catacombs in which they are preserved, confift of four wide passages, about forty feet in length, and along the fides are niches, in which the bodies, prepared for their appearance, by having been broiled fix or seven months over a flow firt, till all the fat and moisture are consumed, stand. The head, hands, arms, and feet, are bare, the skin is entire, and resembles pale coloured leather. Some of the more illustrious dead are shut up in trunks. · The manners of the inhabitants are not very different, in our author's representation, from the pictures of other travellers. The frequency of assassinations is very properly attributed to the priests who earnestly inculcate the greater danger of offending against human traditions than of breaking the positive and revealed laws of God. We Thall extract some account of the method of travelling in Sicily, the appearan e of the country, &c. The inns are, in many places, much worse than they are described in this pailage, as we may have uccalion to remark
• The equipage provided for my brother and myself, is called a ligita, which is a sort of sedan coach, or vis-a vis, supported by two poles, and carried by mules. This litiga, or double fejan, has no glass in she windows, but thick curtains in case of rain, neither has it any doors, but you are lifted in and out through C. R. N. AR. (IV). April, 1792.
the windows, by the men holding a little board for you to put your foot on. The sides are painted with superstiticus devices, to secure you from dangers : among these, the virgin and child, and the souls in purgatory, are seldom omitted. The like is on all their boats, particularly on what are called, the fproronara.
My nephew and our servants are furnished with good horses ; three four other men accompany us to take care of the beasts, and we have, besides, a feldier for our guard, with a gun and cutlaís; so that we conceive ourselves able to make a pretty strong resistance in case of an attack. For the first feven miles, we travelled upon an excellent carriage road, over the plain, which is ornamented with country houses and gardens, corn fields, now beautifully green, groves of exceeding fine olives, and liately orange and lemon trees, loaded with fine fruit, and some other garden trees, most of which are in blossom, particularly almonds, plumbs, and peaches. We next passed over a very rugged road, under rocks by the sea-side, and hy hedges of large aloes, many of which had fowered last year. The stems of several more were cut down, and used for gate-posts and other purposes. This plant, as also the Indian fig, are both extremely hardy, and will flourish in the tops of walls, on the sides of rocks and mountains, and even in the most barren sand. The manner of making hedges, is by sticking a fingle leaf of the Indian fig into the ground, which foon takes root, and grows to a great size ; when old, it has a bark formed round it, consisting of its firft leaves, grown hard and become brown.
This is perhaps or shrub krown that is raised by the leaves, 'witiith growone out
'tree of another for fome years before it has any item or scarcely any root. Our whole day's journey has been twenty-two miles, and we are now at a fmall town confifting of lix or feven wide parallel ítreets, the houses of which are all poor, and only one story high. Such is our inn, which, to our astonishment, is perfectly clean, and contains three'beds, upon which we may venture to sleep, without apprehenfions. Befides a most admirable arrangement of crockery ware, the walls are ornamented with images, crucifixes, and pictures of saints ; and, as a fariher proof of the piety of the two good old women that keep the house, there is a figure of a little waxen virgin just delivered, with the infant Jesus lying by her, carefully preserved in a glass case ; though this figure of the virgin lies proftrate kicking up the legs in no very decent manner, yet we should certainly have been thought highly profane, had we made any animadversions on it. The windows are not glazed, and we have no other defence against the cold, which is at present pretty severe, but wooden shutters, which, for the ad. vantage of the light, we keep open. There is no food of any kind in the house, excepting some that we brought with us from
Palermo, Palermo, and which we are now going to dress ourselves, over a charcoal brazier in the middle of the room. Frosty morning. Bright cool day.'
As this is the first quotation, we may observe, that the addition of the weather and the state of the air, contrasted with the immediately preceding sentence, has sometimes a ludicrous effect. If we read in a journal, our dinner was excellent, and the people attentive-a bright delightful day; or the fowls were lean, and the mutton overdreft-a cold, bleak, hazy afternoon; we may suspect, in each instance, that the parts of the sentence have a more intimate connection than immediately following each other. Thus, in p. 217, we find, our good inn.' 'Alas, alas ! our beds are left behind cool and cloudy, with some similar instances where the contrast or the coincidence * a little whimsical. The charitable employment of the prinčedrBacaris fervant on the head of his comrade, might have excited much higher disgust, if it had not been serene and 'mild.' Mr. Hill will not, we hope, be angry at these remarks: they first occurred to us in reading his work in a post-chaise. The weather warm and highly pleasant, so that it could not be suggested by any malignity.
The portrait of his Sicilian majesty is not so favourable as some others drawn by different painters. Mr. Hill gives full credit to the chearfulness and affability of the king, but adds some circumstances, which display much weakness of mind, vanity, and want of taste. . These may be true, for Nature seems not to have scattered her choiceft favours on royal heads, or education has nipped the flowers in the bud. - The bite of the tarantula, in Mr. Hill's opinion, in which he agrees with the most intelligent modern travellers, is not dangerous; or, if so, the danger is removed by the profuse sweats which the usually attending exercise excites. The snow-white sheep of Tarentum are no louger observed : they are all black, owing as is supposed to a certain herb in the neighbourhood, which poisons the white sheep without injuring the black ones. Our author does not think this opinion a very probable one; but, if we consider tirat the black beasts or birds, among those animals that admit of this colour, are of the wilder and hardier kind, we may be allowed to consider the reason as more probable.
Thele obfervations chiefly occur in a little excursion westward along the northern coast of Sicily to Favoretta and Castell a Mare. During the second stay at Palermo, fome circumstances which were not noticed before are mentioned. The population of Palermo is estimated at 320,000; and though it is agreed by every traveller that the people are very numerous in proportion to the size of the city, this great number almost exceeds belief. The banditti are less numerous than formerly, though still formi