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culture in that country, which, compared with that of England, yields but as three to eight. Necessary provisions are also imported annually into France to the amount of two hundred millions of livres : while that country, if even moderately cultivated, might afford large exports to other states. In England agriculture also occupies far more hands in an equal extent of surface than France does. After all, the soil and clime of England are, with regard to agriculture, fuperior to thole of France, or perhaps to those of any other country: and yet in England it is supposed the proportion of puor equals that of France. Commerce and manufactures offer far more abundant resources to the poor than agriculture, and the toils are continuous, not interrupted by intervals. But our limits will not permit us to enlarge farther on this subject than merely to observe, that the committee, after descanting on the means of em. ploying the honest poor, proceeds to the means of correcting the vicious. The whole pamphlet is worthy of the attention of the benevolent in all countries.
Le Chemin du Bonheur tracé aux jeunes gens, is a religious work of great merit. The author gives the eilence of Christianity, free from controversy, or any censure of the creed or practice of iny Christian communion,
The Preservatif contre le Schisme, or questions on the decrce of the 27th Nov. 1790, 8vo. concerns the present religious fere ments in France.
A tragedy, entitled Washington, ou la liberte du nouveau - monde, by M. de Sauvigny, has appeared on the theatre of the nation at Paris. The title may indicate that it is an illegitimate draina.
Mirabeau juge par ses Amis et par fes Enemis, Paris, 8vo. is the title of a work containing a collection of the best pieces which have appeared in the periodical works for and against that celebrated man.
The Voyage en Italie of M. Duclos, historiographer of France, lately publifhed at Paris, in one volume, 8vo. is confined in its plan. The journey was performed in the year 1766. M. Duclos declares exprefly, p. 280, ' I am drawing up this journal of my travels only for my own private satisfaction, and not for the press. We are not therefore to regard him as a complete traveller, but as a philosophical observer, who collects as he paffes along political or moral materials, pf which he means to make a proper use at a future time. Considered under this point of view, this posthumous work of Duclos is interesting. The good qualities and the defects of the author mark its pages; his peculiar manner, his philosophical tone, always frank, often severe, and that pasionate love for every feature of beauty or goodness, which is peculiar to just minds and sensitive hearts. The production
is nervous the causticity of the author is very apparent : he lived with the great and knew them.
Some of his reflections at Rome we shall translate, as a specimen of the work. • With us in France a king builds a palace, his successor is not pleased with it, and he builds another, which is in like manner abandoned by a third. If this change were only occasioned by the development of the genius of an age, and the gradual perfection of the arts, few objections could be made ; but it is commonly pure inconstancy, and the people pays the expence. We have seen as much spent in building, nay more than Louis XIV. squandered, and what has been done? It is not thus at Rome. Is the erection of a church proposed ? The plan is meditated, digested for it. The future changes, if any, only tend to perfect the edifice. One pope begins, and his successors continue. The church of St. Peter is the work of thirty popes.
• In general, the administration of the popes is moderate. Each pontificate is only estimated at seven years, taking the medium of a series of popes. It is not poslible that an old man should busy himself with the faults of the administration, that he should flatter himself that he shall have time to correct them, or that he should even have such courage at an advanced age as to make the attempt : he only thinks of enjoyment.--The governo ment is one of the worst in Europe. I do not speak of the defects of the constitution of this fingular morarchy. For example, in a state where the sovereign is an old man elected and absolute, but who cannot appoint his fucceffor, it is impoffible to reunite all inclinations in one, to confound particular interests in the common interest, or to make the latter the source of the former. The fpirit of new Rome is diametrically opposite to that of the ancient. In this last every point of the circumference tended to the center, and patriotism was the ruling paffion of the citizens. In the new, all, who have the fmallest private interest to follow, leave the circle. It is the mode to be solitary or not to unite, except to form fa&tions, save in one general inftance, the pretensions of the Roman court over other catholic states. In this point alone all are actuated with one spirit. But this favourite object must be soon renounced, if Rome wishes to preserve any privilege.'
Nor must we omit to mention an Englishman, who may reno der the island of Capræ more illustrious than the ancient debaucheries of Tiberius. He was called the chevalier Torol. Afflict. ed with an asthma, after having tried the air of the several regions of Italy, he found no benefit except in this famous ifland. Hardly had he past a few days at Anacapri before his breathing became more free. Resolved to fix there he built an agreeable house upon the hill, where he lived thirty years, occupied with leisure and amused with his studies. M. Duclos thus proceeds.
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• The first piece of furniture he procured was a young and beautiful girl, by whom he had three sons, whom he fent to London as foon as they were of an age proper to learn commerce, each with a thousand guineas. He died in 1766, leaving to his female com. panion his house and iwo hundred a year, and the rest to his song. His habitation was a kind of little fort, to which you ascended by fairs cut in the rock; it was defended by two pieces of cannon, and by a garrifon, consisting of domestics whose maintenance depended on the care and duration of his life, without any hope of legacies. He was beloved and esteemed in the ide. If this was not a wise man seek one such elsewhere."
Of the work entitled Fifprit Pensées et Maximes de M. l'Abbe Maury, little needs be faid. The opinion of the abbe, supported by that of Hume, that there cannot be found a ray of real eloquence in the English writers, is rather remarkable. But it ap. pears certain the that animated elocution which appears in the works of Fenclon, Bossuet, Rousseau, Raynal, &c. has never yet been hazarded by the severe sense of our great authors, who prefer the decency of reason to the impaflioned decorations of eloquence.
The poems of M. Bonnard, Paris, 8vo. prefent many agreeable specimens of that light style which is the most pleafing prevince of French poetry.
GERMANY. The Ueberficht der Vornemiten Regierungen, &c. or View of the chief Goverments of Europe, by M.G. A. Breitenbach, counsellor of the finances of the duke of Saxe-Weimar, presents an account of the present state, not only of Europe, but of the known world, with an abridgement of the history of each cour. try, or at least of the reigning dynaliy. As to Europe, this little work can only be useful to those who look into it for the elements of the history of our own times; but the information it contains concerning the other parts of the globe, although very thort, nevertheless developes a general knowledge of the fate of those dif. tant countries fufficient for the comporalcy of readers. As a specimen of his manner we shall transcribe the following asticle.
National Government of the Interior Parts of America. • It is well known that Peru was anciently governed by the incas, and there still remain descendants of that race. Apu inca, who had embraced the catholic faith, reigned, in 1746, over a part of the ancient inheritance of his family, from Tarma in Peru to the country of the Amazons, and received an embassy from Ferdinand VI. king of Spain (See the Voyages of Bayer). Another, -named Tupac Marsi, put himself at the head of an insurrection
against against the Spaniards in 1781. He was vanquished by the gene. ral D. Valle, who made him prisoner, and ordered his head to be cut off. His wife and his children, with other of his relation, were brought captives to Cusco.
The descendants of the ancient sovereigns of Mexico were de. prived of all their rights by the Spaniards, and arranged in the class of private individuals. It has nevertheless happened that a descendant of Pedro de Montezuma, son of Montezuma II. and to whom the emperor Charles V. had aligned some lands in Mexi. ço, with the title of count, obtained the dignity of viceroy of Mexico in 1697 (Voyages of Gemelli). Another of these counts, de Montezuma, lived at Manilla in 1768; the Spanish king paid bim a pension of 5000 pia ters, and permitted him to use the arms ascribed to the Mexican empire (Voyages de Page). Of the other American princes, known under the name of Caziques, there was, in 1760, one named Ponteak, of the family of Oto tovavas, who governed the Algonquin Indians in Canada, Roger, in his account of North America, mentions this Ponteak as one of the most powerful princes in that part of the world, and who had formed the project of uniting under his sceptre all the Beighbouring native nations. But in this he failed.'
We shall only observe upon this extract, that it is surprising to see the Voyages of Gemelli quoted as an authentic work, while it was a fabrication of the closet.
Mr. Heim's Historisch Philologische Abhandlung; or, Historical and Philological Treatise on the Roman Monuments discovered at Aschaffenburg, from 1777 till 1787, Francfort and Mentz, 4to. is not a little curious. Many Roman antiquities have at different times been found at Mentz, but they have been neglected, or carried to Vienna. The discoveries at Aschaffenburg began, 1777, upon the occasion of repairing one of the old towers of the town, others followed in 1782, on demolishing a private house, and in 1383, on searching the foundations of the old castle. The antiquities of which we have here a description, are, 1. A votive marble to Apollo and Diana. 2. One fimilar to Jupiter, as preserver of the Roman republic. 3. Another, inscribed to the greareft of the gods. 4. Another to Jupiter, by a family of the country. 5. A domestic altar to Jupiter. 6. A votive marble Lo the fame deity, by two Roman legions. 7. Another dedicated to the British Jove, and to the other gods of Britain. 8. A cable of stone for sacrifices. 9. A Roman coin.
All these monuments are described in the prolix style of the old antiquaries; but the want of plates is an eflential defect. The author gives an account of the progress of antiquarian studies in his country, and a list of writers who have treated on the antiquicies of Mentz. Jfert's Reize na Guinea, &c. or, a Voyage to Guinea and the
Caraibes Islands, 8vo. is in the form of letters, and presents many proofs of judgment and veracity. The author is phyfician to the Danish settlements in Africa, and he arrived at Christians. burg, on the banks of the river Volta, towards the end of the year 1783. 'This fortress is the chief place of a Danish colony, founded in 1660. Mr. Isert first gives an account of a war between the Danes and the natives, which raged at the time of his arrival, Amid other particulars he then mentions that streams of water are rare in that region ; but the defect is supplied by a singular filtration not yet accounted fer. Ditches are dug at the distance of 150 paces from the sea, and of the depth of eight or ten feet: by de. grees they are filled with water to the height of the sea's level; and this water is perfectly sweet and wholesome. Our limits will not permit us to follow Mr. Isert in his account of the charming country of Whedha, left a desert by the stupid indolence of the natives, nor of that of the Aquapins, a nation seated about 30 leagues from the coast. Mr. Isert leave. Africa to go to Santa Cruz, an island bought by the Danes from the French at the beginning of this century.
The chief town is Christianstad. Thence he proceeds to the other Danish isles, and to Guadaloup and Martinico.
Another work of the same author, the publication of which had commenced under the title of Flora Autrialis, has been interruptçå by his death,
The Deutsche Schaubuhne, or German Theatre, published at Augsburg, 8vo. proceeds regularly in twelve volumes for each year. The third year is now completed.
Vogt's singular work Gustav Adolph, or the History of Gufta, vus Adolphus, king of Sweden, in the form of a drama, published at Frankfort, in two vols. Svo. with plates, is not deficient in entertainment nor in indtruction.
PRUSSI A. Or Baron Poelnitz's Memoiren zur Lebens, &c. or Memoirs to serve the History of the Lives and Government of the four last Pruslian Monarchs, the firt volume has appeared at Berlin, 8vo, The manuscript of this work has been long concealed in cabinets, and the editor deserves thanks for the publication of a work so authentic and interesting. This first volume ends at the death of Frederic I. who appears to more advantage in the pages of Poelnitz than in former publications.
SWITZERL A N D. At Laufanne has appeared in two vols, 8vo. La Morale du Ci. toyen, by M. Bonfils of Geneva. This is the work of a good citizen, and contains many new and useful ideas. Among others, the proposition for a tribunal of morals, who shall enquire into the causes of female seduction, and replace the repentant in character ?