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tended a commencement for the conferring of degrees in the university of that city. In the public charge delivered by the provost upon that occasion to the students, he gave the reins to a warm imagination, and wandered far in the paths of speculation; painting the rising glories of America in arts and letters, as well as in com
merce and arms. Notwithstanding the apparent penury and misfortune of the times, a bank was instituted, during the present summer, in ja; and the scheme was so well supported by the principal men of the province, that the allotted capital, of 3oo, oool. Pensylvania currency, to be paid in hard money, was subscribed in a few days. The public service was, however, the principal, if not the only object of this bank. They were to receive the congress money, that is to say, the amount of the taxes, and the supplies remitted by the other colonies; and they were, on the other hand, to answer the public demands, and particularly to furnish the supplies for the army, in the most prompt and efficacious manner; and for the procuring of sufficient resources of cash, they were enabled to pass notes, and to borrow money at 6 per cent. interest. To turn, however, this bank to any confiderable advantage, a much reater stability in government, and a much greater care in their finances, is undoubtedly necessary. Previous to the arrival of the French succours, the Marquis de la Fayette, who had been so much distinguished by the early part which he took in the American cause, long before his court had thrown
thrown by the mask, or even, per-
Count de Rochambeau.
officers, soliciting, and strongly recommending to them, the wearing of black and white cockades, (the ground being of the first colour, and the relief of the other) as a compliment to, and a symbol of friendship and affection for their generous and magnanimous allies. It was, indeed, highly grievous, not only to native Englishmen, but to those Americans, who, though equally determined upon liberty and independence with the most violent, yet still looked wishfully forward, to the renewal of ancient amity, and friendly conneétions, though upon equal terms, with the mother country, to perceive, not only the influence which France was gaining in the counsels of America, but the progress likewise which she was continually making, in the opinion, and, it is to be feared, in the affections of the people. Admiral Arbuthnot had only four sail of the line at New York: so that instead of being able to cope with the French squadron, he was under an expectation of being himself attacked in that harbour. This state of things July 13 was, however, soon changed, by the arrival of Admiral Graves, with six sail of the line, from England. The British commanders, having now a decided superiority of force, lost no time, after the newly arrived ships had repaired or supplied the consequences of the voyage, in proceeding to Rhode Island, intending, after taking a near view of the situation of the enemy, to act as circumstances might invite or admit, whether with respect to a dire&_attack, or to the government of their future operations. *
ration with the governor of the Havanna, towards the latter end of the year 1779, in pursuance of which he was to be reinforced and supported, by a considerable em. from that place, early in the present year. The appointed time being arrived, and De Galvez suppofing that the expected force from the Havanna was of course on its way, and being himself impatient of delay, he embarked all the force he was able to raise in his government at New Orleans, and proceeded, under the Jo; I4. convoy of scime small frigates and other armed vessels, on his expedition, expecting to be followed or met by the force from the Havanna. The delays, difficulties, and dangers, which they encountered
who confidered only the distance, without taking into the account,