The Earth's Magnetism: An Introduction for Geologists

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Springer Science & Business Media, 9 авг. 2006 г. - Всего страниц: 280
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Initially, this book reviews the general characteristics of the Earth’s magnetic field and the magnetic properties of minerals, and then proceeds to introduce the multifold applications of geomagnetism in earth sciences. The authors analyze the contribution of geomagnetism both in more general geological fields, such as tectonics and geodynamics, and in applied ones, such as prospecting and pollution. Primarily, the book is aimed at undergraduate geology or geophysics students. It is geared to provide them with a general overview of geomagnetism, allowing them to understand what contributions this branch of science can offer in the more special sectors of earth sciences. Graduate students and geology researchers will also benefit from it, as it enables them to gain a clear and concise image of the techniques which can be applied in their areas of specialization.

 

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The Earths Magnetic Field
1
Observations and Geomagnetic Measurements
2
Elements of the Earths Magnetic Field
5
Early Measurements of the Earths Magnetic Field
7
Modern Magnetic Measurements
11
Mathematical Description
16
Methods for g n m and hnm Computation
21
Results of Spherical Harmonic Analysis
23
Chemical Remanent Magnetization CRM
130
Detrital and PostDepositional Remanent Magnetization DRM pDRM
132
Isothermal Remanent Magnetization IRM
135
Viscous Remanent Magnetization VRM
137
Timing of Remanence Acquisition
138
Sampling Techniques
139
Laboratory Techniques
140
Demagnetization
141

A Predominantly Dipolar Field
24
Geomagnetic Coordinates
27
Harmonic Power Spectra of the Geomagnetic Field
31
Time Variations
33
Secular Variation
34
Magnetic Tomography and Interpretation of Secular Variation
39
Geomagnetic Jerks
40
External Origin Time Variations
42
Essentials on the Origin of the Earths Magnetic Field
48
Toroidal and Poloidal Fields
49
Fundamental Equations of Magnetohydrodynamics
50
Elementary Dynamo Models
53
Dynamo Energy
56
Magnetic Observatories Reference Field Models and Indices
59
Geomagnetic Field Reference Models
61
Geomagnetic Indices
62
Suggested Readings and Sources of Figures Books
66
Basic Principles of Rock Magnetism
67
Magnetic Properties of Solids
69
Ferromagnetism
72
Conclusion
76
Magnetic Energies
77
Magnetic Hysteresis
80
Remanence Acquisition
82
Magnetic Domains
83
Remanence vs Time
85
Magnetic Properties of Minerals
88
FeTi Oxides
90
Fe Sulfides
92
Ferromagnetic Minerals in Rocks
93
Sedimentary Rocks
95
Metamorphic Rocks
96
Suggested Readings and Sources of Figures Books
97
Magnetic Prospecting
99
Instruments and Surveying Procedures
100
Magnetic Anomalies
102
Data Processing
103
Summary of Operations
104
Significance of Magnetic Anomalies
105
Forward Modeling
107
Inverse Modeling
111
Spectral Characteristics
113
Other Frequently Used Techniques
116
Satellite Magnetic Measurements
118
Applications of Magnetic Anomalies
119
Suggested Readings and Sources of Figures Books
126
Paleomagnetism
127
Identification of Magnetic Minerals
147
Paleomagnetic Directions and Poles
150
Statistical Analysis
151
Field Tests
154
Tilt Correction and Paleomagnetic Direction
156
Virtual Geomagnetic Pole VGP and Paleopole
157
Paleomagnetic Information
159
Regional Tectonics
164
Volcanism
167
Prospection
169
Paleofield
170
Suggested Readings and Sources of Figures Books
175
Magnetic Fabric of Rocks
177
Laboratory Techniques
183
Magnetic Fabric
186
Igneous Rocks
188
Magnetic Fabric and Deformation
194
Anisotropy and Remanence
198
Suggested Readings and Sources of Figures Books
201
Magnetic Signature of the Earths Crust
203
Oceanic Crust
205
Continental Crust
210
Global Maps of the Earths Field
213
Suggested Readings and Sources of Figures Books
216
Magnetic Chronology
217
Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale GPTS
218
Magnetic Stratigraphy
225
Paleosecular Variation
227
Archaeomagnetism
231
Suggested Readings and Sources of Figures Books
234
Environmental Geomagnetism
235
Enviromagnetic Parameters and Techniques
238
Magnetic Climatology
241
Magnetism and Pollution
246
Seismo and Volcanomagnetism
248
Suggested Readings and Sources of Figures Books
252
Historical Notes
253
A Light in the Middle Ages
255
The Discovery of Declination and Inclination
256
Geomagnetism in Gilberts Epoch
258
Secular Variation
259
Geomagnetism from Gauss Onwards
261
Rock Magnetism
262
Suggested Readings and Sources of Figures Books
264
Magnetic Quantities SI and cgs Units Conversion Factors
265
Index
266
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