Quantum Measurement

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Cambridge University Press, 25 мая 1995 г. - Всего страниц: 191
This book is an up-to-date introduction to the quantum theory of measurement. Although the main principles of the field were elaborated in the 1930s by Bohr, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, von Neuman, and Mandelstam, it was not until the 1980s that technology became sufficiently advanced to allow its application in real experiments. Quantum measurement is now central to many ultra-high technology developments, such as "squeezed light," single atom traps, and searches for gravitational radiation. It is also considered to have great promise for computer science and engineering, particularly for its applications in information processing and transfer. The book begins with a brief introduction to the relevant theory and goes on to discuss all aspects of the design of practical quantum measurement systems.
 

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Содержание

Historical introduction photons and measurements using photons
1
11 The discovery of photons
2
12 The wave and particle properties of photons
4
13 The Heisenberg uncertainty relations
7
14 When do macroscopic objects behave quantum mechanically?
12
15 Overview of this book
15
The main principles of quantum mechanics
17
22 Probabilistic interpretation of the wave function
19
73 The equation of motion for the density operator during a continuous monitoring
97
74 Quantum Zeno paradox for approximate measurements
101
Detection of classical forces
105
82 Quantum probe oscillator
109
83 Continuous quantum nondemolition monitoring
112
84 Standard quantum limit for an oscillator
115
85 Optimal detection of a classical force
118
86 A probe oscillator coupled to a sensor that continuously monitors its number of quanta
122

23 Single measurements and ensembles of measurements
21
24 Reduction of a quantum state
24
25 von Neumanns postulate of reduction
27
26 Orthogonal measurements
30
27 Nonorthogonal measurements
32
28 Back action of the measuring device on the measured object
35
Indirect measurements
38
32 An electron as the quantum probe
41
33 Electron probe detailed analysis
44
34 Formal description of an indirect measurement
46
Quantum nondemolition measurements
50
42 How can one overcome the standard quantum limit?
53
43 The ponderomotive probe for energy
57
44 Criteria for QND measurements
60
Linear measurements
64
53 Sequences of linear measurements
70
Continuous linear measurements
76
62 Uncertainty relations for continuous linear measurements
77
63 Uncertainty relations for continuous linear measurementsrigorous analysis
82
64 Linear quantum 2Npole systems
84
65 The spectral representation
87
66 Internal fluctuations of a linear measuring device
89
Nonlinear systems for continuous measurements
93
72 Quantum Zeno paradox for exact measurements
95
Energetic quantum limitations
125
general analysis
129
93 Distinguishing evolutionary paths of a quantum object from each other
132
Devices for measuring small mechanical displacements
136
102 Capacity transducer
139
103 Fluctuations in a capacity transducer in the stationary regime
143
stationary regime
148
nonstationary regime
151
106 Frequency upconverter
154
107 Capacity transducer with twosideband pumping
157
Quantum nondemolition measurements of a resonators energy
160
112 Measuring device based on cubic dielectric nonlinearity
162
113 The role of dissipation
165
114 Resonator coupled to a waveguide
167
Nonclassical states of electromagnetic waves as tools for quantum measurements
172
122 QND measurements of the energy of a traveling electromagnetic wave
175
123 Frequencyanticorrelated quantum state
178
124 Doppler measurements with frequencyanticorrelated photons
180
125 Statistical properties of a wave packet with a definite number of quanta
183
Conclusion
186
References
188
Subject Index
193
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