Explaining Consciousness: The Hard Problem

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Jonathan Shear
MIT Press, 1999 - Всего страниц: 422
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Why doesn't all this cognitive processing go on "in the dark," without any consciousness at all? In this book philosophers, physicists, psychologists, neurophysiologists, computer scientists, and others address this central topic in the growing discipline of consciousness studies.

At the 1994 landmark conference "Toward a Scientific Basis for Consciousness", philosopher David Chalmers distinguished between the "easy" problems and the "hard" problem of consciousness research. According to Chalmers, the easy problems are to explain cognitive functions such as discrimination, integration, and the control of behavior; the hard problem is to explain why these functions should be associated with phenomenal experience. Why doesnt all this cognitive processing go on "in the dark", without any consciousness at all? In this book, philosophers, physicists, psychologists, neurophysiologists, computer scientists, and others address this central topic in the growing discipline of consciousness studies. Some take issue with Chalmers' distinction, arguing that the hard problem is a non-problem, or that the explanatory gap is too wide to be bridged. Others offer alternative suggestions as to how the problem might be solved, whether through cognitive science, fundamental physics, empirical phenomenology, or with theories that take consciousness as irreducible.

Contributors
Bernard J. Baars, Douglas J. Bilodeau, David Chalmers, Patricia S. Churchland, Thomas Clark, C. J. S. Clarke, Francis Crick, Daniel C. Dennett, Stuart Hameroff, Valerie Hardcastle, David Hodgson, Piet Hut, Christof Koch, Benjamin Libet, E. J. Lowe, Bruce MacLennan, Colin McGinn, Eugene Mills, Kieron OHara, Roger Penrose, Mark C. Price, William S. Robinson, Gregg Rosenberg, Tom Scott, William Seager, Jonathan Shear, Roger N. Shepard, Henry Stapp, Francisco J. Varela, Max Velmans, Richard Warner

 

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Содержание

Introduction
1
FirstPerson Perspectives
6
Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness
9
Facing Backwards on the Problem of Consciousness
33
Closing the Explanatory Gap
45
A NonIssue for Materialists
61
There Is No Hard Problem of Consciousness
69
Should We Expect to Feel as if We Understand Consciousness?
83
The Hardness of the Hard Problem
149
The Nonlocality of Mind
165
A Quantum Approach
197
Physics Machines and the Hard Problem
217
Why Neuroscience May Be Able to Explain Consciousness
237
Rethinking Nature
269
A Hard Problem within the Hard Problem
287
Solutions to the Hard Problem of Consciousness
301

Consciousness and Space
97
Giving Up on the Hard Problem of Consciousness
109
There Are No Easy Problems of Consciousness
117
Incorrigibility and the MindBody Problem
133
The Relation of Consciousness to the Material World
325
Closing the Empirical Gap
359
Moving Forward on the Problem of Consciousness
379
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Об авторе (1999)

Robert S. Chirinko is Professor of Finance at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

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