Environmental Magnetism: Principles and Applications of Enviromagnetics

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Academic Press, 28 апр. 2003 г. - Всего страниц: 299
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Magnetism is important in environmental studies for several reasons, the two most fundamental being that most substances exhibit some form of magnetic behavior, and that iron is one of the most common elements in the Earth's crust. Once sequestered in a suitable material, magnetic particles constitute a natural archive of conditions existing in former times. Magnetism provides a tracer of paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental conditions and processes.

Environmental Magnetism details the occurrence and uses of magnetic materials in the natural environment. The first half of the volume describes the basic principles. The second half discusses the applications of magnetic measurements in various environmental settings on land, in lakes, in the ocean, and even various biological organisms.

* Material is broadly applicable to environmental studies
* Case histories illustrate key points
* Extensive bibliography makes further research quick and easy
 

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Содержание

INTRODUCTION
1
12 An Example
2
13 Scope of the Subject
4
BASIC MAGNETISM
7
22 Magnetic Susceptibility
9
23 Magnetic Hysteresis
13
24 Grain Size Effects
14
25 Summary of Magnetic Parameters and Terminology
18
722 Minerals and Mechanisms
144
723 Milankovitch Cycles
147
724 Paleoprecipitation
149
726 Examples of Gleization
158
73 Lake Sediments
159
732 Italian and French Crater Lakes
160
733 Lake Baikal
164
742 Terrigenous Magnetic Influx
165

26 Enviromagnetic Parameters
20
261 Susceptibility
21
264 ARMSIRM and SIRMK
22
266 karmk and the King Plot
24
267 Hc H and FORC Diagrams
25
27 Magnetic Units
27
28 Putting It All Together
29
ENVIROMAGNETIC MINERALS
31
32 Iron Oxides
32
321 Magnetite
33
322 Hematite
38
323 Maghemite
40
33 Iron Hydroxides
41
35 Iron Carbonate
42
36 Some Examples
43
37 RoomTemperature Biplots
47
MEASUREMENT AND TECHNIQUES
50
422 Remanent Magnetization
53
423 HighField Techniques
62
43 Magnetic Parameters Used in Environmental Studies
68
431 LoessPaleosol Sequences
69
432 Lacustrine Deposits
74
433 Marine Sediments
77
44 Magnetic Parameters Unmixed
78
PROCESSES AND PATHWAYS
84
512 BioChemical Processes
87
52 Soils and Paleosols
88
53 Marine Sediments
96
54 Rivers and Lakes
103
TIME
111
611 An Example
115
612 Another Example
116
62 Temporal Characteristics of the Geomagnetic Field
117
621 Geomagnetic Polarity Reversals
118
622 Secular Variation
121
623 Geomagnetic Excursions
125
624 Geomagnetic Intensity Fluctuations
128
63 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy
130
64 Milankovitch Cycles
133
MAGNETOCLIMATOLOGY AND PAST GLOBAL CHANGE
136
743 Biogenic Magnetite
171
MASS TRANSPORT
174
83 Erosion and Sediment Yield
176
84 Permeating Fluids
179
85 Oceanic and Atmospheric Circulation
182
MAGNETISM IN THE BIOSPHERE
185
92 Biomineralism
188
93 Bacterial Magnetism
189
931 Two BOM Examples
196
932 Two BIM Examples
198
933 Diagnostic Magnetic Tests
199
934 Bacterial Greigite
203
935 Mars Meteorite
206
941 Mollusces
207
943 Fish and Birds
208
MAGNETIC MONITORING OF POLLUTION
211
102 Soil Contamination
213
103 Rivers Lakes and Harbors
218
1031 A Canadian Harbor
220
1032 A Swiss Lake
222
1033 An Austrian River
223
104 Atmospheric Contaminants
225
105 Roadside Pollutants
227
106 Pneumomagnetism
229
ARCHEOLOGICAL AND EARLY HOMINID ENVIRONMENTS
231
112 Archeological Soils
232
113 Archeological Magnetic Prospection Surveys
235
114 Economy Industry and Art
239
115 Speleomagnetism
241
116 Hominid Evolution
243
OUR PLANETARY MAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT
245
122 The Geomagnetic Field
246
123 The Magnetosphere
249
Appendix
253
Glossary
254
References
261
Index
289
List of Volumes in the Series
295
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Стр. 261 - Microbial biomineralization of magnetic iron minerals: microbiology, magnetism and environmental significance in geomicrobiology: interactions between microbes and minerals, JF Banfleld, KH Nealson (Eds.), Rev.
Стр. 269 - Occurrence and formation of iron oxides in various pedoenvironments, in Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals, JW Stucki, BA Goodman, and U. Schwertmann, eds., NATO ASI Ser., D.
Стр. 270 - A three-dimensional convective dynamo solution with rotating and finitely conducting inner core and mantle,
Стр. 265 - D. Cohen, EA Edelsack, and JE Zimmerman, Magnetocardiograms taken inside a shielded room with a superconducting point-contact magnetometer, Appl.
Стр. 264 - Chiari, G., and R. Lanza. Pictorial remanent magnetization as an indicator of secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 101, 79-84, 1997.
Стр. 270 - Magnetometers using RF-driven SQUIDS and their application in rock magnetism and paleomagnetism.

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Fundamentals of Geophysics
William Lowrie
Ограниченный просмотр - 2007
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